Dulles fell out with British delegate Anthony Eden over the United Kingdom`s perceived failure to support united action and American positions on Indochina; he left Geneva on 3 May and was replaced by his deputy, Walter Bedell Smith. [5]:555-8 The State of Vietnam refused to participate in the negotiations until Bidault wrote to Bảo Đại, assuring him that an agreement would not divide Vietnam. [5]:550–1 While delegates met in Geneva at the end of April, discussions on Indochina did not begin until May 8, 1954. The Viet Minh had won its decisive victory over the troops of the French Union at Dien Bien Phu the day before. [5]:549 The Geneva Conference lasted until July 21 before reaching a formal agreement. The terms of the Geneva Convention were as follows: 5. In 1954-55, the United States launched Operation Passage to Freedom to help Vietnamese civilians resettle from north to south. It was a humanitarian mission, but it also served as propaganda. Diplomats from South Korea, North Korea, the People`s Republic of China (PRC), the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the United States of America (USA) discussed the Korean side of the conference. For the Indochinese side, the agreements were concluded between France, the Viet Minh, the USSR, the People`s Republic of China, the United States, the United Kingdom and the future French`Indochina states. [4] The agreement temporarily divided Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone that was to be ruled by the Viet Minh and a southern zone that was to be governed by the State of Vietnam, then ruled by former Emperor Bảo Đại.

A final declaration of the conference, issued by the British president of the conference, stipulated that general elections should be held by July 1956 in order to create a united Vietnamese state. Although they helped create the agreements, they were not directly signed or accepted by the delegates of the State of Vietnam and the United States, and the State of Vietnam subsequently refused to allow the elections, which led to the Vietnam War the following year. Three separate ceasefire agreements covering Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam were signed at the conference. Behind the scenes, the U.S. and French governments continued to discuss the terms of a possible U.S. military intervention in Indochina. [5]:563-6 on the 29th. In May, the United States and the Frenchman agreed that Eisenhower would seek congressional approval for military intervention in Indochina if the conference reached an acceptable peace agreement. [5]:568-9 After talks with the Australian and New Zealand governments in which it turned out that neither would support the United States. In a military intervention, reports of a decline in the morale of the French trade union forces and the resistance of the army chief of staff, Matthew Ridgway, the United States began to turn its back on the intervention and continue to resist a negotiated solution. [5]:569-73 From early to mid-June, the United States began to consider the possibility that it would be better for the French, rather than supporting the French in Indochina, to leave the French and for the United States to support the new Indochinese states. This would remove the stain of French colonialism.

Unable to support the proposed partition or intervention, the United States decided in mid-June to withdraw from a broad participation in the conference. [5]:574-5 Zhou Enlai reports on some last-minute agreements regarding conference procedures. It was decided that the Korean delegation would take the floor first and that Thailand, Great Britain and the Soviet Union would take turns chairing the conference. A few days later, the plenum of the Sixth Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam took place. Ho Chi Minh and Secretary General Trường Chinh took turns stressing the need for a quick political solution to prevent a military intervention by the United States, which is now Vietnam`s "main and direct enemy." "In the new situation, we can`t follow the old program," Ho said. "Our motto was: `War of resistance to victory`. Now, faced with the new situation, we must stick to a new motto: peace, unification, independence and democracy. A spirit of compromise would be necessary on the part of both parties to make the negotiations a success, and there can no longer be any question of annihilating and annihilating all french troops. A demarcation line allowing a temporary regrouping of the two sides would be necessary. The plenum endorsed Ho`s analysis and passed a resolution supporting a compromise solution to end the fighting. However, Ho and Truong Chinh obviously feared that such an agreement in Geneva would lead to internal discontent and a "left-wing deviation," and in particular, analysts would not recognize the complexity of the situation and would underestimate the power of American and French adversaries.

As a result, they reminded their colleagues that France would retain control of much of the country and that people living in the region could be confused, alienated and susceptible to hostile manipulation. That afternoon, Zhou offered "a long account of the massive international scope of the conflict in Indochina. and the imperative to prevent US intervention in the war. Given Washington`s intense hostility to the Chinese revolution. it must be assumed that the current government would not sit idly by if the Viet Minh wanted to achieve complete victory. Therefore, "if we demand too much from Geneva and peace is not achieved, it is certain that the United States will intervene, provide Cambodia, Laos and Bao Dai with weapons and ammunition, help them train military personnel and establish military bases there. The central issue," Zhou told Ho, "is to prevent America`s intervention" and "achieve a peaceful solution." Laos and Cambodia should be treated differently and allowed to follow their own path if they do not join a military alliance or allow foreign bases on their territory. The government of Mendes France, which is committed to reaching a negotiated solution, must be supported lest it fall and be replaced by a government dedicated to the continuation of the war. [5]:597 Ho pushed hard for the demarcation line to be at the 16th parallel, while Zhou noted that Route 9, Laos` only land route to the South China Sea, was closer to the 17th parallel. [5]:597 Most of the nine participating countries have committed to guaranteeing the agreements, but the United States has made it clear that it is not bound by them. The South Vietnamese also refused to give their consent, and the final declaration was not signed by all parties.

The U.S. government pledged to establish a separate anti-communist state in South Vietnam, and in 1956 supported South Vietnam`s refusal to hold national elections in consultation with North Vietnam. The British and Sino-Communist delegations agreed to improve diplomatic relations on the sidelines of the conference. [24] 7. The Conference declares that for Vietnam, the settlement of political problems, based on respect for the principles of independence, unity and territorial integrity, allows the Vietnamese people to enjoy the fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the democratic institutions created by free universal suffrage by secret ballot. In order to ensure sufficient progress in the restoration of peace and that all the necessary conditions for the free expression of the national will were met, general elections were held in July 1956 under the supervision of an international commission composed of representatives of the States members of the International Monitoring Commission. within the meaning of the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities [...].